This is usually a set of problems related to networking. You will need to provide more information for it to be debugged.

1) First of all you need to see if the CentOS system has networking working. I see that the system is showing that it
 needs updates which may be part of the problem. Does yum update work for the other repositories? If it doesn't then
the system does not have proper network setup and that needs to be fixed first.

2) Check to see if your box can reach mirrors.fedoraproject.org
a) In the console type host mirrors.fedoraproject.org. If it is working it should return somehting like
mirrors.fedoraproject.org is an alias for wildcard.fedoraproject.org.
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 152.19.134.142
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 67.219.144.68
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 152.19.134.198
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 209.132.181.15
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 140.211.169.206
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 5.175.150.50
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 209.132.181.16
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 140.211.169.196
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has address 213.175.193.206
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has IPv6 address 2a00:d1a0:1::131
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has IPv6 address 2610:28:3090:3001:dead:beef:cafe:fed3
wildcard.fedoraproject.org has IPv6 address 2604:1580:fe00:0:dead:beef:cafe:fed1

b) Then try opening in both the host systme and the virtual machine the page:
https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org

If it works in the host system but not the virtual machine there there is a problem in the config of the virtual machine.
If it works in neither case then something in your local network is causing a problem
If it works in both cases then the problem may be with something like it trying to get an IPv6 connection to the server but the IPv6 network not being able to reach our IPV6 servers. That seems to happen in some cases.

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