You might try Fedberry. I uncommented "dtparam=spi=on" in
/boot/config.txt and now see the /dev/spidev0.0 and /dev/spidev0.1
devices. The GPIO devices (gpiochip0, gpiochip1, and gpiochip2) are
present by default, without any special configuration.
With F27, uncertain about what device tree overlay capabilities actually
exist, I experimented by manually adding the SPI text to the initial
binary device tree file (dtc from binary or tree to source, edit, dtc
back to binary) but this did not work. I wonder whether the F27 SPI DT
overlay data may be incomplete (Raspbian has more detail), or if your
suspicion about kernel configuration is the fundamental problem.
I2C is what I need currently, and F27 has been very good for that.